The Creaceous period lasts from 142 to 65 million years ago. This is the time when most of today’s oil is formed. The last of the dinosaurs are giving way to mammals, insects and birds. The continents are continuing to move away from each other.
The differing climates and greater distance between continents is giving us a more diverse world. Plants and animals become more diverse in this time.
Magnolia trees and other early flowering plants appear and spread forth. The first flowering plants were weedy like plants with tiny flowers on tall stalks. Some think our first flowering plant arrives in this time, the Archaefructus at about 125 million years back.
The flowering plants have evolved from the seed ferns and start to move slowly out into the world. In time they will make up 90% of plant species. They begin at the waters edges and at the edges forested areas in a world that is dry and harsh. They will eventually gain a foothold in the tropical areas too.
During this time the leaves of the plants make a huge leap forward. The veins become regular there are no more haphazardly veined leaves. This makes the leaves stronger and better able to handle wind.
Flowering plants and insects begin their symbiotic arrangements. Plants gain colors besides green in order to attract insects. Bees and butterflies are with us now.
At the end of this time the world again cools and volcanic activity makes the world a harsh place. A large meteor strikes Mexico adding to the hostility of the environment. A few ferns survive, most everything else is wiped out.